New view on blockchain programming from nutshell

Starting with the idea of “sync”, blockchain needs to be copied among nodes to ensure mining; therefore “sync” is essential, even when there are 10 millions blocks to download in near future.

It is hardly for me to believe the massive download will be sustainable when more history data accumulated. The potential and only way different from “sync” is to use “state” as base for mining or verify transactions.

From “state” view, nodes communicate to each other by requesting state than “sync”. The modern computing science will normally use prefix TRIE structure to hold the state map.

When a node propose a new block in the mining process, it needs provide all the state key-value information for that block only. Blocks will be sent over to support the key-value information as an evidence. An extreme case is that when one new block only has zero transaction, the miner just need to show the proof of consensus to be recognised, the mining is done without any history block data, which is so called “stateless” mining.

Blockchain is therefore a “state expansion”. When all miners agree that the state is correct, blocks are not essential to be here. Here is a big jump from conventional mainnet programming from blocks to state.

In this new theme, old block-hash is replaced by “state root”. In IPLD system, it is the state root cid, HAMT Node cid, and also IPLD cbor-block cid. These three convert to be one. The ethereum state-root field is no longer needed. The bitcoin parent block hash is also changed.

Under the “state based view”, participants of TAU will be following two types:

State miner which is a mobile device behind firewall

  • computing work: generate consensus data for competing the mining priority, verify transactions and provide cbor-blocks to support the partial state that is relevant.
  • present (n+1) state with supporting blocks


  • transport: a mobile phone connected to a relay to gain access to the network due to the constraints of private IP. Relay will admit connection at “individual wisdom”. Mobile phone connects to a relay at “individual wisdom” as well.
  • relay will be paid in serving the data.

Founder of Tau — Server-less and unblock-able messenger with high-scaling blockchain economy.

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